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Mahasiswa Universitas Gunadarma Ciptakan Robot yang Mampu Bicara dan Kejar Bola | Depok News
Wednesday, August 09, 2017
Mahasiswa Universitas Gunadarma Ciptakan Robot yang Mampu Bicara dan Kejar Bola | Depok News: media depok yang terpercaya dan bersahabat, sumber berita dan informasi
posted by Musa @ 1:34 PM   0 comments
Kuliah Umum Robotika Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Dan Teknologi Informasi UG
Monday, December 21, 2015
posted by Musa @ 6:24 PM   0 comments
ekspresi kreatifitas: TIM ROBOT UG JUARA 3
ekspresi kreatifitas: TIM ROBOT UG JUARA 3: Berita gembira datang dari Tim Robot UG. Tim yang terdiri dari 9 mahasiswa UG ini berhasil keluar sebagai Juara III dalam Kejuaraan GALE LOB...
posted by Musa @ 6:21 PM   0 comments
Universitas Gunadarma Teleconference Dengan Universitas de Bourgogne Perancis Dalam Sidang Terbuka Promosi Doktor
Friday, May 23, 2014

Mujiran - | Wednesday, 21/5/14 , 22:09 WIB | 258 Views

Universitas Gunadarma menggelar sidang terbuka promosi doktor IT untuk promovendus  Purnawarman Musa, SKom, MT. Dalam sidang tersebut juga dilakukan teleconference dengan  Prof. Dr. Michel Paindavoine yang berada di Perancis. Prof. Dr. Michel Paindavoine merupakan dosen pembimbing Purnawarman Musa sewaktu kuliah S3 di Perancis.

Purnawarman Musa yang menempuh pendidikan  di Universitas de Bourgogne Perancis, sebelumnya juga sudah melakukan sidang terbuka promosi doktor di Universitas de Bourgogne Perancis.

Sedangkan sidang terbuka yang dilaksanakan di Universitas Gunadarma, Rabu (21/5/14) Purnawarman Musa yang mempresentasikan disertasi berjudul “Pengembangan Sistem Retina NLIP Berbasis CMOS Teknologi 0,35 um dan Sistem Vision Artifisial Dengan Menggunakan Board FPGA Spartan 6” dinyatakan lulus dengan predikat sangat memuaskan, sehingga ia mendapatkan sertifikat doktor dari dua universitas. Dari Universitas Gunadarma ia menjadi lulusan doktor yang ke 63.

Sidang tersebut  dipimpin Rektor Universitas Gunadarma Profesor Doktor  E.S. Margianti, SE, MM didampingi Senat Universitas Gunardarma.

Purnawarman Musa meraih doktor dengan  Promotor Prof. Dr. Sarifuddin Madenda, sedangkan Ko Promotornya Prof. Dr. Michel Paindavoine dan Dr. Eri Prasetyo Wibowo.

Purnawarman Musa mengatakan dengan mendapatkan dua sertifikat doktor dari universitas terkenal merupakan kebanggaan sekaligus tantangan.

“Sangat senang tapi merupakan beban berat juga, karena ilmu harus berkembang , gelar doktor yang saya dapat dari Perancis dari kesempatan belajar yang cara mendapatkannya tidak mudah,” katanya dengan penuh haru kepada, seusai sidang.

Dalam penelitiannya Purnawarman Musa menciptakan chip retina yang mempunyai fungsi khusus untuk mengolah foto atau warna langsung didalam kamera tanpa harus melaui pc.

Purnawarman Musa lahir di Gorontalo, (18/12/1975).  Menempuh pendidikan S1 Teknik Komputer dan S2 Magister Teknik Elektro, semuanya di Universitas Gunadarma. (muj/muj)

Sent from Gmail Mobile
posted by Musa @ 4:00 PM   0 comments
Quels sont les accents accessibles sous LaTeX ?
Wednesday, April 25, 2012

  Les accents accessibles sous LaTeX sont les suivants :  + \`{a} ou \`a accent grave  + \'{e} ou \'e accent aigu  + \^{i} ou \^i accent circonflexe  + \"{o} ou \"o trema  + \~{u} ou \~u tilde  + \={o} ou \=o surligné  + \.{o} ou \.o point  + \u{o}  + \v{o}  + \H{o} trema hongrois  + \t{oo}  + \c{c} cédille  + \d{o} point en dessous  + \b{o} sousligné

  \oe{}uvre pour écrire "oe" collés, par exemple oeuvre 

posted by Musa @ 7:19 PM   0 comments
Writing Self-Published Books with Lyx
Monday, February 06, 2012
Source :

Troubleshooters.Com and T.C Linux Library Present
Writing Self-Published Books with Lyx

Copyright (C) 2001 by Steve Litt, All rights reserved. Material
provided as-is, use at your own risk.
LyX gives an author the means to write a uniform and beautifully
typeset, formatted book with a minimum of effort.


Custom paragraph styles and custom character styles are indispensible
for the book author, and unfortunately the Lyx methods to accomplish
these two necessities are horrendously underdocumented. In fact, as of
LyX 1.1.6fix3, LyX doesn't even support character styles. But don't
worry, this document containss a very nice workaround you can use to
achieve the benefits of character styles.

The toughest impediment to learning to customize LyX is confusing LyX
code with LaTeX code. This will be clarified in this document.

* Lyx Quickstart: A voluminous documentation of LyX.
* LyX Gotchas: Here are some LyX Landmines, and how to avoid them.


* Introduction to Lyx
* Built in Paragraph Styles
* Built in Character Styles
* Simulating Character Styles With Color Pseudostyles
* Paragraph Styles (LyX Environments)
* Will Lyx Suit My Needs?
* Evaluating Lyx for Your Needs
* The Fast Way to Learn Lyx
* Beginning Textclass Modification Tutorial
* For Real Tutorial -- Adding an Environment
* Programs to help with Lyx
* Strongarming the date in a LyX document
* Incorporating Layout Files

Introduction to Lyx
This article introduces Lyx from a 10,000 foot overview.
What Is Lyx?
Lyx is a document processor. It handles all document formatting based
on styles and a set of rules to translate those styles to formatting.
Therefore your book is consistent throughout. And if you use the same
set of rules on multiple books, they'll all be formatted consistently.

Lyx uses paragraph styles (which are called "environments" in Lyx
parlance) to govern formatting of document pieces. There are styles
for different level headers, for emphasis, for peoples' names, for
code snippets. And you can make your own styles, although that isn't

If you use LyX, your documents will output as beautifully typeset
documents with consistently professional formatting. They'll look like
a book you see in the bookstore. And because LyX handles the
formatting, you can spend your time and energy on what you're writing,
not how it will look.

As mentioned, the LyX default styles may not format exactly how you
want. In such cases you can modify styles or even make your own. This
web page contains tutorials that walk you through creating your own
What Lyx Isn't
Lyx isn't a word processing program. You can't (and shouldn't) format
individual words or paragraphs. Instead you assign styles to the words
or paragraphs. Those styles correspond to the words and paragraphs'
function, not to the way you want them to look. You'd never use Lyx to
design a high impact flyer, or a poster, or a love letter. Lyx
configuration is difficult enough that you don't start seeing a return
on your configuration investment unless you write books or *lots* of
We've all heard of WYSIWYG. Lyx is WYGIWYM. WYGIWYM stands for "What
You Get Is What You Mean". This means if you mean for text to
represent source code you assign it a source code environment (Lyxese
for style), and it formats the way you meant it to. You needn't worry
about formatting during the writing of your document. If you don't
like the way it looks upon finishing and printing it out, you can
change the way styles map to formatting, and those styles will
consistently change throughout the document.

WYGIWYM has spacing ramifications. Spaces are considered nothing but
word separators, and as such multiple spaces are output as a single
space. Likewise, carriage returns (newlines and the like) are simply
paragraph separators, and as such you cannot make a blank line by
inserting an additional return. Blank lines should never be necessary.
Instead, each paragraph specifies interparagraph spacing, spacing
before the first of such paragraphs, and spacing after the last of
such paragraphs.

This is a matter of philosophy. Do we view a book as 300 pages, each
of which is a sketch or painting? Or do we view it as parts containing
chapters containing various levels of headings containing paragraphs
of varying types, such as normal body text, code examples, notes,
tips, warnings and the like. LyX takes the latter view, and thus
simply declares the formatting of various paragraph styles. Such
formatting can be complex, including lines, graphics, justification,
spacing, and almost anything else you can think of. The beauty of this
philosophy is once you've decided the properties of each paragraph
style, those decisions are applied uniformly throughout your book. If
you decide to change one of those styles, every paragraph of that
style is instantly updated throughout your book.

A cynic might label this as WYGIWWA - "What You Get Is What We Allow".
Lyx makes the rules and unless you're knowledgeable enough to change
those rules you just accept what Lyx says you get. This is one of the
reasons for the paragraph and character style examples on this page --
to let you use Lyx without settling for an unsatisfactory format.
Data Safety
In this era of software rental licenses and companies going out of
business, it's nice to know that your documents are in easy to parse
ascii text. It's quite easy to write a simple computer program to
convert Lyx documents to other formats. The native Lyx format is even
human readable, so there's every reason to believe that 20 years from
now you'll be able to get your hands on your data.

Data safety was the #1 reason I chose LyX. The books I write are vital
to my business.
Built in Paragraph Styles
This section details the available paragraph styles contained in the
"book" document class. There are other document classes such as
"article", "letter", "seminar", "slides", "broadway" (scripts for
plays), "hollywood" (movie scripts), and many more, including some
specialized styles for different types of books. However, this web
page discusses the "book" document class, because it provides the
nicest looking general purpose styles for books. This document then
goes on to instruct you how to change existing styles and make new
styles to get exactly the book you want.
Heading Paragraph Styles
This is a list of the heading styles, in order of inclusiveness (i.e.
a Part contains chapters, not vice versa).

Style Key
Chapter M-p 1
Section M-p 2
Subsection M-p 3
Subsubsection M-p 4
Paragraph M-p 5
Subparagraph M-p 6


The preceding styles called "Paragraph" and "Subparagraph" are
headings, not body text type paragraph styles. Body text is most
accurately mapped to the LyX environment called "Standard"
Itemization Type Paragraph Styles

Style Key
Bind Style Description
Itemize M-p b Bulleted list
Enumerate M-p e Numbered list
Description M-p d 2 column list of short terms on the left, and a
long definition on the right. The term on the left is bold
List M-p l
case L) Similar to List, but left hand term is not bold.
Styles for Special Paragraphs

Style Key
Bind Style Description
LyX-Code M-p c Use this for a source code listing. Fixed width font.
Unlike other LyX styles, this one allows multiple spaces in order to
accurately reflect a source file.
Quotation M-p Q Used for a long quote (i.e. quoting a paragraph of
the State of the Union Address).
Quote M-p q Used for a short quote (i.e. "A penny saved is a penny earned".)
Verse M-p v Used for poetry and prose. All lines after the first
line of the paragraph are indented.
Caption M-p M-c This is a mechanism to title figures and tables, and
must be used in conjunction with figure floats and table floats.
Book Structure Paragraph Styles

Style Key
Bind Style Description
Title M-p t Title of the book
Author M-p A Author of the book
Date M-p D Date of the book
Bibliography M-p B Bibliography
Built in Character Styles
There are no built in character styles as a book author would think of
them. This is a serious deficiency which the LyX people plan to
correct in the future. So this deficiency won't hurt your long term
use of LyX.

Frustratingly, fonts like font-code are sometimes referred to as
styles in the LyX world. In fact, using font-code introduces a \family
typewriter into the LyX file, so it's no different from using <tt> in
your HTML to represent code. There's not a one to one correspondence.

Nevertheless, it's easiest to use font-code to represent a small slice
of code within a larger paragraph. Here are some of the other fonts I
use to represent things:

font-emph C-e Emphasized text (italicized)
font-code Create in ~/.lyx/ui/default.ui. Filenames, tiny commands
and other code like things within a larger paragraph (fixed spaced
font-noun M-c c Terminology -- words to be defined, etc. (small caps)

Styles are supposed to map to usages, and it's obvious that the
preceding fonts do not. So they're a compromise. But it works as long
as you don't use italics, smallcaps or monofonts for other things. If
you do not, then when LyX gains character style capabilities it will
be trivial to search/replace these fonts with real styles.

But of course you will use italicized, fixed space and small cap text
for other things. That's OK as long as those other usages are done
with color pseudostyles.
Simulating Character Styles With Color Pseudostyles
This section will show you how to set up a one to one correspondence
between character color and a LaTeX character style. This allows you
to easily convert to real character styles when LyX gains that
feature. Place the following code near the top of your .layout file.

% %%% Pseudo character styles indexed by color %%%
\ifthenelse{\equal{#1}{blue}}{{\textsl{\textsf{#2}}}}{}% Steps
\ifthenelse{\equal{#1}{magenta}}{{\textsl{\textsf{#2}}}}{}% Chapters
\ifthenelse{\equal{#1}{magenta}\or\equal{#1}{blue}}{}{#2}% fallthrough

The Preamble and EndPreamble keywords are LyX code. Everything between
them is LaTeX code. In fact, it's safe to assume that any code between
Preamble and EndPreamble is LaTeX code.

The ifthen package bestows the ability to assign according to choices
-- in this case colors. the \usepackage keyword incorporates that
package much the same as a Perl use or a C include.
Paragraph Styles (LyX Environments)
Books need styles like Tip, Note, Warning and the like. The following
code implements a Note style, narrower than normal text, contained
between lines, and titled with the word NOTE.

Style Note
LatexType Environment
LatexName note_l

LabelType Centered_Top_Environment
LabelString "NOTE"
AlignPossible Left
LeftMargin "MMMMM"
RightMargin "MMMMM"
ParSkip 0.7
ParSep 0.7
TopSep 0.7
BottomSep 0.7

{\centering\large NOTE \\[0.2cm]}
\\[0.2cm] .\hrulefill \\

In the preceding, the style is described first in LyX code (everything
except that between Preamble and EndPreamble), and a parallel
description in LaTeX (everything between Preamble and EndPreamble).
You'll note that I didn't bother to put the lines in the LyX version.

Note also there are plenty other ways to do this. The best way is
probably to enclose the note in a minipage, but I don't know how to do
that yet.
Will Lyx Suit My Needs?
Why use LyX?

Because once you learn it, you can easily and quickly produce books,
reports and other large documents that are professionally formatted
and typeset. These documents can be put into Postscript or PDF format
so they print correctly everywhere.

I chose LyX after getting tired of inconsistent typefaces. After
getting tired of having to remember whether I made a style for things.
After getting tired of trying to remember what font I made a given
entity the last time.

I got tired of manually tweaking books to get the paging right. I got
tired of inaccurate tables of contents. I got tired of printing

I got tired of my word processor slowing me down. That same word
processor that seemed so easy to learn ages ago, but now confounded me
with an array of formatting choices seemingly every paragraph.

Now I can reasonably expect to write a professional looking book, and
send a postscript file to the print shop of my choice.

But LyX requires a serious committment. A person who could learn MS
Word or Star Office in a day could take a week or more to learn Lyx
unless they approach that learning process the right way. The creation
and modification of environments (styles) in LyX are inobvious to say
the least. You will not successfully write books with Lyx unless you
make a serious committment to learn the program and style
modification. This page contains an article called The Fast Way to
Learn Lyx, designed to make your committment much more achievable.

LyX suits your needs if you need its benefits and can handle its
costs. The benefit is uniformly consistent formatting of your books,
reports and other large documents, without your needing to oversee
that consistency. The cost is learning LyX (easy) and learning to
create and modify its styles (difficult, but made much easier by the
tutorials on this page).
Evaluating Lyx for Your Needs
First, know that you can use LyX to produce almost any type of printed
document you can imagine. It's that flexible. It's VERY doubtful that
LyX would not be able to produce what you need, unless what you need
is formatted on the fly stuff like flyers, posters, invitations and
the like. But for serious documents like books, reports, and even
business letters, you can be 99% certain that LyX can be made to
produce the format you need. LyX is ALMOST NEVER a dead end. As a
matter of fact, it's much less likely to be a dead end than more
mainstream word processors.

But that doesn't mean it will be easy. Changing default environment to
format mappings is much more difficult with LyX than with standard
word processors. See the article titled The Fast Way to Learn Lyx to
minimize the LyX training period.

Here are some of the questions you'll need to answer in order to
decide for or against Lyx:

* How important is consistency in my documents (Lyx is very consistent)
* Can I live with Lyx's default document classes and formatting?
(If so, go with LyX -- it's a no brainer)
* Do I or somebody in my organization have the ability to learn to
I create and modify Lyx styles to produce output suiting my needs?
(Before answering, read the rest of this web page. After reading the
web page, if the answer is No, LyX doesn't suit your needs).
* Is the Lyx program's performance sufficient for books the size I
want to write, and if my books are big enough to slow it down, am I
willing to write the books in parts and put everything together in the
end (makes crossreferencing harder)
o Note: My dual 450mhz Celeron with 512Meg and a 7200rpm
hard drive can load, reformat, or output to Postscript in less than 20
seconds for a 100,000 word (about 250-300page) document. On the same
document I can save in less than 5 seconds. However, on a 550,000 word
doc (about 1200-1400 pages) it takes about 3 minutes to load or
* How important is a good index to me? (LyX is great at indexing)
* How important is a good, accurate table of contents to me? (LyX
produces good looking and accurate tables of contents)
* How important is guaranteed future access to my book's data
(proprietary wordprocessors are often hard to export from).
* Are you proficient with a capable text editor with macros and
search/replace? (Proper use of a text editor on your LyX files can
greatly enhance your LyX capabilities, although this isn't absolutely
necessary for profitable use of LyX).

I'd recommend starting by using Lyx for reports (they have a Report
document class). If that works out use their Letter document class to
produce letters whose format isn't important (personal letters and the

Take the tutorial later in this web page. If you're successful with it
you'll probably be able to commit to Lyx. If you cannot do the
tutorial after many repeated attempts, Lyx is probably not for you.
That is, unless you have a consultant who can modify document classes
and environments. Many businesses have computer experts create macros
and templates so that less technical people can produce corporate
standard documents.

Run performance tests to see how Lyx works on your computer with books
resembling the size and structure of yours. This page contains a C
program you can use to create just such a test book. If you can't
compile the program, have a programmer friend do it. If the
performance is insufficient, you'll need to
The Fast Way to Learn Lyx
LyX can take a day or two to learn, or it could take weeks, depending
on how you approach learning it. This article describes how to learn
LyX in a day or two.

LyX has two distinct aspects:

1. Creating content
2. Controlling the format of that content in the output

#1 is no harder than any other word processor, and it's probably
actually easier than most word processors. The best way to learn #1 is
to run the LyX tutorial (Help->Tutorial from the menu). Once finished
with the LyX tutorial, you'll have an excellent grasp of how to write
content in LyX. That leaves #2:

#2 is much harder than with other word processors. First, most word
processors allow you to format content on the fly. LyX doesn't allow
that because on-the-fly formatting leads to inconsistant and
amatuerish documents. If you want professional looking documents, LyX
is your product.

But changing the mapping of styles to formatting is much harder than
in programs like WordPerfect, MS Word or StarOffice. It requres
knowledge of LyX coding and the LaTeX markup language. Both are
extensively documented, but unfortunately the documentation is a
reference, not a tutorial.

So I created some tutorials to walk you through creating and
formatting your first LyX style (LyX styles are actually called
"environments"). Those tutorials appear on this page. These tutorials
will take you one to four hours, after which you'll be ready to create
custom environments to make your document look the way you want it to,

In summary, if you'd like to trim the LyX learning process down to a
day or two, do the LyX tutorial, and then do the tutorial on this

To shorten the learning time, use tutorials. Start with the tutorial
that comes with LyX (Help->Tutorial).
Beginning Textclass Modification Tutorial
Lyx is a wonderful program with wonderful documentation. The docs tell
you every aspect of Lyx user operation, as well as giving you all
sorts of Lyx functions and Latex codes (the latter being in
/usr/share/texmf...). But there's a gaping hole in the docs when it
comes to exactly how you create new environments in a real life
situation. All too often the documentation tells you what to insert
but assumes you know where to insert it. All too often you get your
new environment into Lyx, only to find that it doesn't render in
Postscript or DVI.

This tutorial and the next one are designed to condense a week of
manual reading, emailing and experimentation into two 1 hour
tutorials. This is the first tutorial, designed to give you the
fundimentals. Read on...
Proof of Concept
This proof of concept does nothing but enable a new textclass to
appear in your Layout->Document->Document->Class dropdown list. It has
no practical use, and must be reversed out, meaning that you must make
a backup of the file you modify.

1. Log in as root
2. Find your system's Lyx layout directory. It's typically in
/usr/share/lyx/layouts, but of course can vary. The following two
commands may help you find it:

locate -r "article\.layout$"
find / -type f | grep "article\.layout$"
3. Note however that your system contains other copies of
article.layout. The one you want should have "lyx" in the directory
path. cd to the Lyx layout directory. From there, the pwd command
should reveal "lyx" somewhere in the directory name, and there should
exist several .layout files.
4. Back up the article.layout file with the following command:

5. cp -p article.layout Edit article.layout.
Change the second line, which looks like this:

# \DeclareLaTeXClass{article}
to this:
6. # \DeclareLaTeXClass{Hello World} Reconfigure Lyx with Edit->Reconfigure
7. Close all copies of Lyx, open a Lyx session, open a file, and
note that the Layout->Document->Document->Class dropdown list now
contains a class called "Hello World".

You have just changed the name of the "Article" class to "Hello
World". For reasons you'll see later, this is useless except as a
confidence building exercise.
Changing an Environment's Font in the Proof of Concept
In this exercise you will change the font and alignment of the Author
environment (an environment is Lyx's word for a paragraph style), to
see what it affects, and perhaps more importantly, what it does not

1. Create a baseline article
1. Use Lyx to create a new two line document of type "Hello
World". The first line should be "Title" and should be formatted to
the Title environment (chosen from the
Layout->Document->Document->Class dropdown list). The second line
should be "Author" and should be formatted to the Author environment
picked from the same dropdown.
2. Save as z.lyx.
3. Notice that in Lyx both the words "Title" and "Author" are
centered, and that the word "Title" is much bigger than the word
4. Use View->Postscript to view the document in a viewer.
Notice that the words "Title" and "Author" are centered but skewed
toward the right (they're right of center), and that the word "Title"
is much bigger than the word "Author". Notice that there's a third
line containing a date, but ignore that line, as it's not relevant to
the point being made. The main point is that "Title" is bigger than
"Author", and that they're both centered toward the right.
5. Exit the Lyx program.
2. Edit article.layout
1. Add the following lines to the bottom of article.layout:

Style Author
Align Left
AlignPossible Left

Size Giant
2. Understand that what you just did is modify the existing
Article environment, changing the alignment to left and the font size
to Giant.
3. Save article.layout.
3. Tell Lyx about the layout change.
1. In Lyx, Edit->Reconfigure
2. Exit Lyx and run it again.
4. Notice the changes, and also notice what doesn't change
1. Pull up z.lyx in Lyx.
2. Notice that now the word "Author" is larger than the word
"Title", and that the word "Author" is now left justified instead of
3. Use View->Postscript to view the document in a viewer.
Notice that the Postscript article is identical to the one formatted
before the change. "Author" is NOT bigger than "Title", nor is it left

File article.layout changes the layout of the article under Lyx, but
not the finished product. You must modify other files to change the
Exploring the Role of Layout Filenames
This exercise introduces the fact that filenames matter, and methods
of specifying the mapping between files and layouts initially appears
almost magical.

1. Verify once more that environment "Hello World" appears in the
Layout->Document->Document->Class dropdown list.
2. Rename article.layout to aarticle.layout.
3. In Lyx, Edit->Reconfigure
4. Exit Lyx and run it again.
5. Pull up z.lyx in Lyx
6. Notice an error message saying "unknown textclass article".
7. Notice that environment "Hello World" is now missing in the
Layout->Document->Document->Class dropdown list.
8. Verify the following:
* Changing \textclass article to \textclass aarticle does
not restore environment "Hello World".
* grep -r "article\.layout$" /usr/share/lyx reveals no
config files mapping to filename article.layout.
* Likewise, grep -r "article\.layout$" ~/.lyx reveals no
config files mapping to filename article.layout.
* Removing the "\.layout" from the preceding commands also
reveals no information on why filename article.layout is so special.

Obviously, something declares the filename article.layout to be
special, but at this point it's difficult to find. How do you get Lyx
to recognize a layout file of arbitrary filename? Read on...
Recognizing a Layout with Arbitrary Filename
This exercise gets Lyx to recognize aarticle.layout, and postulates
the reason such a procedure was necessary.

1. Edit aarticle.layout.
2. Replace the current # \DeclareLaTeXClass line (should be the
second line) with the following:

3. # \DeclareLaTeXClass[article]{Hello World} Save aarticle.layout.
4. In Lyx, Edit->Reconfigure
5. Exit Lyx and run it again.
6. Pull up z.lyx in Lyx
7. Notice that the error message has disappeared.
8. Notice that environment "Hello World" has returned to the
Layout->Document->Document->Class dropdown list.

You just proved that Lyx DOES INDEED read every .layout file in the
lyx/layout directory, and that there's nothing magical about the
filename. This exercise makes that obvious because you renamed the
file to an arbitrary filename (aarticle.layout is definitely arbitrary
-- a filename that's mentioned nowhere except this tutorial.

The key distinction is that the .layout file must name an existing
document class in order to be included in the
Layout->Document->Document->Class dropdown list. So once we referenced
existing document class article (inside the brackets), we get what we
want. Almost.

There are still 2 problems:

* We must have root access and are making the new layout system
wide instead of per user.
* We are still not modifying the finished product (Postscript or
dvi or whatever) to our desire.

The next exercise fixes the first problem...

Now copy back to article.layout with the following command:
cp -p article.layout
Also, delete aarticle.layout.
Modifying a Layout File the Right Way
The preceding exercises were done because they are easy to describe
and perform. However, they were useless because they cannibalized the
Article layout instead of using it as the basis of a more specialized
layout. Also, this method does not require being logged in as root.

A couple facts for those of you trying to transpose this to a
Windows-based system:
~/.lyx means the .lyx directory (yes, it starts with a dot) off your
home directory. The tilde is UNIX shorthand for "home".

1. Set the system back to original state
1. If you haven't yet, restore the original article.layout as
described preceding this exercise.
2. rm aarticle.layout
3. In Lyx, Edit->Reconfigure
4. Exit Lyx and run it again.
5. Pull up z.lyx in Lyx
6. Notice that there are no error messages
7. Notice that the "Author" line is centered and smaller than
the "Title" line.
8. Notice that environment "Hello World" is gone, but has
been replaced by environment "Article" in the
Layout->Document->Document->Class dropdown list.
9. Understand that you have restored the system back to its
original state.
2. Make a user-specific layout file
1. Log out and log back in as your normal username. For
safety and security, real work should not be done as a priveleged
2. cp /usr/share/lyx/layouts/article.layout
3. Edit file ~/.lyx/layouts/aarticle.layout
4. Replace the current # \DeclareLaTeXClass line (should be
the second line) with the following:

5. # \DeclareLaTeXClass[article]{Hello World} Add the
following lines to the bottom of aarticle.layout:

Style Author
Align Left
AlignPossible Left

Size Giant
6. Understand that what you just did is modify the existing
Article environment, changing the alignment to left and the font size
to Giant.
7. Save the file.
8. In Lyx, Edit->Reconfigure
9. Exit Lyx and run it again.
10. Pull up z.lyx in Lyx
11. Notice that the Layout->Document->Document->Class dropdown
list contains both document classes article and Hello World. Note that
toggling between the two document classes toggles the size and
alignment of the "Author line.

You have extended the concept of configuring an arbitrarily named file
to link to an existing document class (Article in this case) to work
with your own personal Lyx directory. Without disturbing the existing
Article document class or layout, you've created your own document
class, called Hello World, that implements a changed Author
environment. Unfortunately, the modifications to the Author
environment do not show up in the finished product (a Postscript, DVI
or PDF file). Making the changes show up in the finished product
requires some additional exercises.
Directly Inserting Code into the Document's Preamble
This exercise gives you a trivially simple example of changing the
finished document's appearance using the Document Preamble.

1. View the original
1. View->Postscript
2. Notice the layout
2. Change and view again
3. Layout->Latex Preamble...
1. In the input box that appears, type these two commands:

\setlength{\hoffset}{2 in}
2. \setlength{\voffset}{2 in} Click the OK button.
3. Save the file (File->Save)
4. View->Postscript
5. Notice that the output is now approximately 2 inches down
and to the right.

This exercise illustrates the simplist possible way to insert code in
the document preamble in order to change the output. If you remember
up until this time everything we did changed the layout in Lyx, but
not the final Postscript output. In subsequent exercises you will
expand on placing code in the preamble in order to get the final
output you want.

For Real Tutorial -- Adding an Environment
Rename aarticle.layout to aarticle.layout.newbie so the layout you
declared there doesn't conflict with this exercise.

Create the following file, called barticle.layout, in your lyx/layouts

#% Do not delete the line below; configure depends on this
# \DeclareLaTeXClass[article]{article (Whopper Enabled)}
# Article textclass definition file. Taken from initial LyX source code
# Author : Matthias Ettrich <>
# Transposed by Pascal André <>
# Heavily modifed and enhanced by serveral developers.

# Input general definitions

# There are no chapters in an article.
NoStyle Chapter
NoStyle Chapter*

MaxCounter Counter_Section
SecNumDepth 3
TocDepth 3

\newenvironment{whopr}{\begin {Huge}}{\end{Huge}\linebreak}

Style Whopper
LatexType Environment
LatexName whopr
Align Left
AlignPossible Left

Size Giant

Next reconfigure Lyx with Edit->Reconfigure. This reads in your new
barticle.layout., which implements a style called "article (Whopper

Create a new file called y.lyx, giving it a title, author and a couple sections.

Layout->Document->Document->Class dropdown list, and select article
(Whopper Enabled).

Type a couple lines in the standard environment, then press Enter to
start a new line, and select Whopper from the environment list, and
type a couple lines. You'll notice that the font is very large.

Hit Enter, note that you're still in Whopper environment, and type some more.

Save the file, then View->Postscript, and note that the lines
formatted as Whopper are large in the output also.
This is the Real McCoy. The extra large font is seen in both Lyx and
in the output (Postscript). This is because the Lyx style, which
starts with keyword Style, points to the LaTeX code in the
Preamble/EndPreamble section, by virtue of the fact that the style's
Latexname value is the same as the LaTeX code's name.
Explanation of Strategic Lines
# \DeclareLaTeXClass[article]{article (Whopper Enabled)}
This declaration on the second line declares a new class called
"article (Whopper Enabled)" to be a class inheriting properties from
already defined class "article". The parentheses in the name are just
text -- they have no specific syntax function. This is the second line
of the .layout file. You'll notice every .layout file has something
similar as its second line.
This includes an include file called, which contains
definitions required by any document class. It must appear near the
This line declares that everything between it and the EndPreamble line
go in the document's preamble. The preamble is the text above the
authored material.
\newenvironment{whopr}{\begin {Huge}}{\end{Huge}\linebreak}
This is a LaTeX statement, not a Lyx function or keyword. This
statement is passed right through to Latex2e, the LaTeX interpreter.

This command creates a new LaTeX (not LyX) environment. It therefore
is reflected in the appearance of the Postscript or DVI output, not in
the Lyx program.

The general form for this type of command is:


{name} is the name of the environment. [num] is optional (all LaTeX
encased in square brackets is optional). {begin} contains all text and
commands to be executed before printing the content typed into the
environment. {after} contains all text and commands to be executed
after the content typed into the environment. In this case before the
content the font is changed to Huge. After the content the Huge font
is removed, reverting text back to its original condition. And then a
linebreak is inserted, because we want the Whopper environment to
resemble a heading style.
Style Whopper
This declares a LyX style governing the appearance in LyX. All the
text between this statement and its corresponding End statement (the
last line of the file in this case) pertain to this style.
LatexType Environment
The Environment value of LatexType tells Lyx that the style has blocks
of commands and text at both the beginning and the end. Other valid
values are Paragraph, Command, Environment, Item_Environment, and
List_Environment. List and Item Environments are similar to
Environment, except they're part of enumerations. Command issues
commands only in the beginning, not begin and end like Environment.
Paragraph issues no commands at all.
LatexName whopr
This is it folks. This is the link between the LyX appearance and the
LaTeX appearance, by linking the LyX style with the LaTeX commands in
the Preamble.
Between this line and its corresponding EndFont line go all the
attributes of the font.
Size Giant
This says the Size attribute of the font is Giant, which is the
largest possible in the LyX font size naming system.

Font Sizes
Speaking of fonts, Lyx and LaTeX have different names for various font
sizes. Use the LaTex font sizes in LaTeX commands destined to change
the font size in the finished product, and the LyX size designations
in LyX style statements.

LaTeX Font Sizes LyX Font Sizes
\tiny Tiny
\scriptsize Smallest
\footnotesize Smaller
\small Small
\normalsize Normal
\large Large
\Large Larger
\LARGE Largest
\huge Huge
\Huge Giant
\newcommnd, \newenvironment, et al
You just used \newcommand to implement a font size in the finished
product, but there are actually several similar LaTeX commands.
The syntax here is:


Where {name} is the name of the new environment, [num] is optional and
beyond the scope of this discussion, {before} is text and commands run
before the content, and {after} is the text and commands run after the
content. Typically the {after} "undoes" the effect of the {before}.

\newenvironment must be used ONLY when the environment didn't yet
exist. To modify an existing environment use \renewenvironment.
Syntax and functionality is the same as \newenvironment, except it
modifies an already existing environment.



Programs to help with Lyx
This software allows you to make dummy Lyx books for the purposes of
format and performance testing. You can modify the nature of the book
(how many Subsections per Section, and how much standard text gets
printed in that subsection), by modifying the source code. At the top
of the file (just after the top of file comments) are the following
constants you can modify:


Because of a bug in the program you can't set any of them to zero, but
you can keep them from printing.

At the bottom of the program are the print() methods for each of the
Environment objects (Subparagraph, Paragraph, Subsubsection,
Subsection, Section, Chapter, Part, Book). To keep one from printing,
simply give it an empty print method (or comment out the existing
print method code. Code in the print method must print the appropriate
header, print the text under the header, and update the Stats object
with what has been printed. It's fairly obvious.

Here's how you use the program:

# Create a new Lyx document

# File/New
# Layout/Document/Document
# In the Class dropdown, select either Book, Book (AMS), or Book
# Click the OK button to return to the Lyx document
# Type in the word "placeholder".
# File/Save as, and save as x.lyx.

# Modify makelyxbook.cpp:

# Modify the per-parent constants
# Modify the various class's print() methods
# Compile the program to a.out

# Create the document

* ./a.out > temp.tmp
* vim temp.tmp x.lyx
* Yank entirety of temp.tmp
* Switch to x.lyx
* Paste just before the line saying \the_end
* Save x.lyx and quit vim
* Pull up x.lyx in lyx

// #######################################################################
// makelyxbook.cpp: Lyx test book creator, version 0.2.0
// Copyright (C) 2001 by Steve Litt (Steve Litt's email address)
// This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
// it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
// the Free Software Foundation version 2 of the License.
// This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
// but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
// GNU General Public License for more details.
// You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
// along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
// Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
// Steve Litt, Steve Litt's email address,
// #######################################################################
// #######################################################################
// #######################################################################
// #######################################################################
// V0.1.0
// Creates test book in lyx format
// BUGS:
// The contstants controlling child environment objects must be
// one or greater, even if you do not wish any child objects.
// Placing a value of 0 for any of these will cause in infinite
// loop.
// To implement zero child environments in the book, simply
// empty the corresponding class's print() method. #
// Version 0.1.0 was a lame OOP implementation.
//Steve Litt, 8/16/2001
//End of version 0.1.0
// V0.2.0
// Replaced OOP with simple loops. Fixed but where you couldn't
// have PER vars with a zero value. Shortened the code.
// User modifications happen in the PER constants at the top,
// and the print routines at the bottom.
// BUGS:
// The contstants controlling child environment objects must be
// one or greater, even if you do not wish any child objects.
// Placing a value of 0 for any of these will cause in infinite
// loop.
// To implement zero child environments in the book, simply
// empty the corresponding class's print() method. #
// Version 0.1.0 was a lame OOP implementation.
//Steve Litt, 8/17/2001
//End of version 0.2.0
// The test book output is controlled by source code changes to
// two sections of this program. First are the child per parent
// are located at the top of the source file. These constants
// control how many children each environment object has. For
// instance, a CHAPTERSPERPART of 3 would mean each part
// contains three chapters. These constants are at the top
// of the program, just below these comments.
// Secondly, each environment has a print routine that
// controls how it prints and how it reports that printing to
// the Stats object. Here is where you control how much
// standard text is printed for each environment object.
// Those print routines are at the bottom of the program.
// #######################################################################
#include <iostream.h>

// Modify the following constants to achieve the best structure
// and size for your Lyx test document
// End of modifiable constants

void printBook(int n);
void printPart(int n);
void printChapter(int n);
void printSection(int n);
void printSubsection(int n);
void printSubsubsection(int n);
void printParagraph(int n);
void printSubparagraph(int n);

// Stats class
class Stats
long Words;
long Lines;
long Subparagraphs;
long Paragraphs;
long Subsubsections;
long Subsections;
long Sections;
long Chapters;
long Parts;

long getWords(){return Words;};
long getLines(){return Lines;};
long getSubparagraphs(){return Subparagraphs;};
long getParagraphs(){return Paragraphs;};
long getSubsubsections(){return Subsubsections;};
long getSubsections(){return Subsections;};
long getSections(){return Sections;};
long getChapters(){return Chapters;};
long getParts(){return Parts;};

void incWords(long a){Words += a;};
void incLines(long a){Lines += a;};
void incSubparagraphs(long a){Subparagraphs += a;};
void incParagraphs(long a){ Paragraphs+=a;};
void incSubsubsections(long a){ Subsubsections+=a;};
void incSubsections(long a){ Subsections+=a;};
void incSections(long a){ Sections+=a;};
void incChapters(long a){ Chapters+=a;};
void incParts(long a){ Parts+=a;};

void setWords(long a){Words = a;};
void setLines(long a){Lines = a;};
long setSubparagraphs(long a){ Subparagraphs=a;};
long setParagraphs(long a){ Paragraphs=a;};
long setSubsubsections(long a){ Subsubsections=a;};
long setSubsections(long a){ Subsections=a;};
long setSections(long a){ Sections=a;};
long setChapters(long a){ Chapters=a;};
long setParts(long a){ Parts=a;};

void show();

void Stats::show()
cout << endl << endl;
cout << "Words = " << getWords() << "," << endl;
cout << "Lines = " << getLines() << "," << endl;
cout << "Subparagraphs = " << getSubparagraphs() << "," << endl;
cout << "Paragraphs = " << getParagraphs() << "," << endl;
cout << "Subsubsections = " << getSubsubsections() << "," << endl;
cout << "Subsections = " << getSubsections() << "," << endl;
cout << "Sections = " << getSections() << "," << endl;
cout << "Chapters = " << getChapters() << "," << endl;
cout << "Parts = " << getParts() << endl << "." << endl;

Stats stats;

long printLine(long a)
cout << "\\layout Standard" << endl << endl;
for(int n=0;n<a;n++)
cout << "abcde ";
if((n+1)%12 == 0) cout << endl;
cout << endl;

// End of Stats class
// Note declaration of stats var above.

void do1Subparagraph(int n)

void do1Paragraph(int n)

void do1Subsubsection(int n)

void do1Subsection(int n)

void do1Section(int n)
for(int n=0; n < SUBSECTIONSPERSECTION; n++)

void do1Chapter(int n)
for(int n=0; n < SECTIONSPERCHAPTER; n++)

void do1Part(int n)
for(int n=0; n < CHAPTERSPERPART; n++)

void do1Book(int n)
for(int n=0; n < PARTSPERBOOK; n++)

cout << endl;

// This section contains the print routines for each environment
// type. By modifying these you can customize your test document.
// Note that if you don't want lower level environments like
// paragraphs or subparagraphs you can simply create them with
// empty print routines.
// Be sure to always change your calls to accurately
// reflect the totals for words and heading types.
void printBook(int n)
cout << "\\layout Title" << endl << endl;
cout << "Automatically Produced Test Lyx Book" << endl;

void printPart(int n)
cout << "\\layout Part" << endl << endl;
cout << "This is a Part: ";
cout << ::stats.getParts() << " : ";
cout << n << endl;


void printChapter(int n)
cout << "\\layout Chapter" << endl << endl;
cout << "This is a Chapter: ";
cout << ::stats.getChapters() << " : ";
cout << n << endl;


void printSection(int n)
cout << "\\layout Section" << endl << endl;
cout << "This is a Section: ";
cout << ::stats.getSections() << " : ";
cout << n << endl;


void printSubsection(int n)
cout << "\\layout Subsection" << endl << endl;
cout << "This is a Subsection: ";
cout << ::stats.getSubsections() << " : ";
cout << n << endl;


void printSubsubsection(int n)
cout << "\\layout Subsubsection" << endl << endl;
cout << "This is a Subsubsection: ";
cout << ::stats.getSubsubsections() << " : ";
cout << n << endl;


void printParagraph(int n)
cout << "\\layout Paragraph" << endl << endl;
cout << "This is a Paragraph: ";
cout << ::stats.getParagraphs() << " : ";
cout << n << endl;


void printSubparagraph(int n)
cout << "\\layout Subparagraph" << endl << endl;
cout << "This is a Subparagraph: ";
cout << ::stats.getSubparagraphs() << " : ";
cout << n << endl;


// End of print routines

The following Vim script converts an outline with tab defined
indentation into Lyx code suitable for the structure of a book:

:%s/^lyxxyl^I^I^I^I^I^I/\\layout Subparagraph\r\r/
:%s/^lyxxyl^I^I^I^I^I/\\layout Paragraph\r\r/
:%s/^lyxxyl^I^I^I^I/\\layout Subsubsection\r\r/
:%s/^lyxxyl^I^I^I/\\layout Subsection\r\r/
:%s/^lyxxyl^I^I/\\layout Section\r\r/
:%s/^lyxxyl^I/\\layout Chapter\r\r/
:%s/^lyxxyl/\\layout Part\r\r/

Note the following:

* Replace each ^I with a tab character.
* Because of the \r substitutions, this works only in UNIX like
* Because of the use of \r\r the preceding works only on
Linux/Unix/BSD boxes. It won't work in a Windows environment.
* The preceding is for Book or Koma-script Book or AMS Book document class.
* You must append it onto a empty lyx file created with the Book
or Koma book document class. Use Vim or other quality text editor to
do the appending.
* WARNING! Do not use otl2lyx.vim directly, as it could mess up
your outline. Instead call it from a script that first copies your
outline to a temporary file so the vim script can work on the
temporary file.
* Note that lyxxyl is simply a place holder -- it could be any
string unlikely to occur in the original outline.
* If you're looking for an outline processor to do tab indented
outlines, and you know VI, you can use VimOutliner at

Using otl2lyx.vim to Fill a Lyx Book With Your Outline Structure

* Create a new Lyx document
o File/New
o Layout/Document/Document
o In the Class dropdown, select either Book, Book (AMS), or
Book (Koma-Script)
o Click the OK button to return to the Lyx document
o Type in the word "placeholder".
o File/Save as, and save as x.lyx.
* Run otl2lyx.vim
o Make a temporary copy of the outline to be converted to
Lyx. To preserve the integrity of your original outline, you'll
process only the temporary copy.
o Edit the temporary copy in the Vim editor on a UNIX, BSD,
Linux, or any other UNIX workalike. Because of the \r line insertions,
this won't work on Windows.
o From within Vim, run otl2lyx.vim with the following command:

o : source otl2lyx.vim Note that your file now looks like Lyx code.
o Save with the :w command.
* Insert the Lyx-ized outline into your new Lyx document
o From the top of the file, type yG to yank (copy) the
entire file into the main register
o Edit the Lyx doc you created earlier with the following command:

o : e x.lyx Place your cursor on the word "placeholder" you
typed earlier. It will be near the bottom of x.lyx.
o Copy the lyx-ized version of your outline by pressing P
(upper case P).
o Go to the bottom of the file again and find the line that
says "placeholder".
o Delete the line that says "placeholder".
o File/save
o x.lyx now contains the exact structure of your original outline.

Strongarming the date in a LyX document
Many LyX documents "help" you by automatically inserting a date in the
document, and if you don't say otherwise, it will be the date it's
printed or converted to postscript or PDF. Obviously this isn't what
you want.

To fix the date at the date the doc was written, do one of these two things:

1. Hardcode the desired date in the Date environment.
2. Hardcode \date{1/30/2002} as ERT (TeX) at the top of the document

Note that because the Letter document class has no date environment,
only #2 will work in letters.
Incorporating Layout Files
LyX finds its layout files in two places:

1. In ~/.lyx/layouts/.
2. In the /usr/local/texmf/tex/latex/ tree

But maybe you really want your layout (mybook.layout) in the directory
containing mybook.lyx (/data/books/mybook). That way the layout file
is always backed up with the book, and isn't trashed when you
reinstall the operating sytsem. To accomplish that, you simply create
a symbolic link:

ln -s /d/at/books/utp/utpbook.layout /home/slitt/.lyx/layouts/utpbook.layout

After doing this, you might need to run the texhash program, and
you'll probably need to perform Edit->Reconfigure from the Lyx menu.

However, you might want your layout file to accompany your book
document's file. Remember, your book document is worthless without the
layout file that produced it, and even if you manage to recreate the
layout file, any differences will cause big changes in the book.

You can
Back to Troubleshooters.Com * Back to Linux Library


Purnawarman MUSA


posted by Musa @ 11:32 AM   0 comments
MCU Space Application
Sunday, November 27, 2011
Saat berselancar mencari referensi bahan project PhD, ditemanin om Google eh ternyata ada situs yang menarik nih untuk beberapa Applikasi diantaranya :

[+] Sensors
[+] Robotics
[+] LED
[+] Misc.
[+] Audio
[+] Automotive
[+] Clocks/Timers
[+] Games
[+] Home
[+] Bootloader
[+] R/C
[+] LCD
[+] Internet
[+] Development Tools
[+] Infrared
[+] USB
[+] Ethernet
+] Cellular

Link lengkap lihat disini
posted by Musa @ 2:52 PM   0 comments
Introduction to Digital Logic Gates
Thursday, September 08, 2011

source :

Introduction to Digital Logic Gates

A Digital Logic Gate is an electronic device that makes logical decisions based on the different combinations of digital signals present on its inputs. A digital logic gate may have more than one input but only has one digital output. Standard commercially available digital logic gates are available in two basic families or forms, TTL which stands for Transistor-Transistor Logic such as the 7400 series, and CMOS which stands for Complementary Metal-Oxide-Silicon which is the 4000 series of chips. This notation of TTL or CMOS refers to the logic technology used to manufacture the integrated circuit, (IC) or a "chip" as it is more commonly called.

Digital Logic Gate
Digital Logic Gate

Generally speaking, TTL IC's use NPN (or PNP) type Bipolar Junction Transistors while CMOS IC's use Field Effect Transistors or FET's for both their input and output circuitry. As well as TTL and CMOS technology, simple digital logic gates can also be made by connecting together diodes, transistors and resistors to produce RTL, Resistor-Transistor logic gates, DTL, Diode-Transistor logic gates or ECL, Emitter-Coupled logic gates but these are less common now compared to the popular CMOS family.

Integrated Circuits or IC's as they are more commonly called, can be grouped together into families according to the number of transistors or "gates" that they contain. For example, a simple AND gate my contain only a few individual transistors, were as a more complex microprocessor may contain many thousands of individual transistor gates. Integrated circuits are categorised according to the number of logic gates or the complexity of the circuits within a single chip with the general classification for the number of individual gates given as:

Classification of Integrated Circuits

  • Small Scale Integration or (SSI) - Contain up to 10 transistors or a few gates within a single package such as AND, OR, NOT gates.
  • Medium Scale Integration or (MSI) - between 10 and 100 transistors or tens of gates within a single package and perform digital operations such as adders, decoders, counters, flip-flops and multiplexers.
  • Large Scale Integration or (LSI) - between 100 and 1,000 transistors or hundreds of gates and perform specific digital operations such as I/O chips, memory, arithmetic and logic units.
  • Very-Large Scale Integration or (VLSI) - between 1,000 and 10,000 transistors or thousands of gates and perform computational operations such as processors, large memory arrays and programmable logic devices.
  • Super-Large Scale Integration or (SLSI) - between 10,000 and 100,000 transistors within a single package and perform computational operations such as microprocessor chips, micro-controllers, basic PICs and calculators.
  • Ultra-Large Scale Integration or (ULSI) - more than 1 million transistors - the big boys that are used in computers CPUs, GPUs, video processors, micro-controllers, FPGAs and complex PICs.

While the "ultra large scale" ULSI classification is less well used, another level of integration which represents the complexity of the Integrated Circuit is known as the System-on-Chip or (SOC) for short. Here the individual components such as the microprocessor, memory, peripherals, I/O logic etc, are all produced on a single piece of silicon and which represents a whole electronic system within one single chip, literally putting the word "integrated" into integrated circuit. These chips are generally used in mobile phones, digital cameras, micro-controllers, PICs and robotic applications, and which can contain up to 100 million individual silicon-CMOS transistor gates within one single package.

Moore's Law

In 1965, Gordon Moore co-founder of the Intel corporation predicted that "The number of transistors and resistors on a single chip will double every 18 months" regarding the development of semiconductor gate technology. When Moore made his famous comment way back in 1965 there were approximately only 60 individual transistor gates on a single silicon chip or die. Today, the Intel Corporation have placed around 2.0 Billion individual transistor gates onto its new Quad-core Itanium 64-bit microprocessor chip and the count is still rising!.

Digital Logic States

The Digital Logic Gate is the basic building block from which all digital electronic circuits and microprocessor based systems are constructed from. Basic digital logic gates perform logical operations of AND, OR and NOT on binary numbers. In digital logic design only two voltage levels or states are allowed and these states are generally referred to as Logic "1" and Logic "0", High and Low, True and False and which are represented in Boolean Algebra and Truth Tables by the binary digits of "1" and "0" respectively. A good example of a digital signal is a simple light as it is either "ON" or "OFF" but not both at the same time.

Most logic systems use "Positive logic", in which a logic level "0" or "LOW" is represented by a zero voltage, 0v or ground and a logic level "1" or "HIGH" is represented by a higher voltage such as +5 volts, with the switching from one voltage level to the other, from either a logic level "0" to a "1" or a "1" to a "0" being made as quickly as possible to prevent any faulty operation of the logic circuit. There also exists a complementary "Negative Logic" system in which the values and the rules of a logic "0" and a logic "1" are reversed but in this tutorial section about digital logic gates we shall only refer to the positive logic convention as it is the most commonly used.

In standard TTL (transistor-transistor logic) IC's there is a pre-defined voltage range for the input and output voltage levels which define exactly what is a logic "1" level and what is a logic "0" level and these are shown below.

TTL Input & Output Voltage Levels

TTL Logic Levels

There are a large variety of logic gate types in both the bipolar 7400 and the CMOS 4000 families of digital logic gates such as 74Lxx, 74LSxx, 74ALSxx, 74HCxx, 74HCTxx, 74ACTxx etc, with each one having its own distinct advantages and disadvantages compared to the other. The exact switching voltage required to produce either a logic "0" or a logic "1" depends upon the specific logic group or family. However, when using a standard +5 volt supply any TTL voltage input between 2.0v and 5v is considered to be a logic "1" or "HIGH" while any voltage input below 0.8v is recognised as a logic "0" or "LOW". The voltage region in between these two voltage levels either as an input or as an output is called the Indeterminate Region and operating within this region may cause the logic gate to produce a false output. The CMOS 4000 logic family uses a different level of voltages compared to the TTL types with a logic "1" level operating between 3.0 and 18 volts and a logic "0" level below 1.5 volts.

Then from the above observations, we can define the ideal Digital Logic Gate as one that has a "LOW" level logic "0" of 0 volts (ground) and a "HIGH" level logic "1" of +5 volts and this can be demonstrated as:

Ideal Digital Logic Voltage Levels

Ideal Digital Logic Voltage Levels

Where the opening or closing of the switch produces either a logic level "1" or a logic level "0" with the resistor R being known as a "pull-up" resistor.

Simple Basic Digital Logic Gates

Simple digital logic gates can be made by combining transistors, diodes and resistors with a simple example of a Diode-Resistor Logic (DRL) AND gate and a Diode-Transistor Logic (DTL) NAND gate given below.

Diode-Resistor circuitDiode-Transistor circuit
Diode Resistor Logic

2-input AND gate
Diode Transistor Logic

2-input NAND gate

The simple 2-input Diode-Resistor AND gate can be converted into a NAND gate by the addition of a single transistor inverting (NOT) stage. Using discrete components such as diodes, resistors and transistors to make digital logic gate circuits are not used in practical commercially available logic IC's as these circuits suffer from propagation delay or gate delay and power loss due to the pull-up resistors, also there is no "Fan-out" facility which is the ability of a single output to drive many inputs of the next stages. Also this type of design does not turn fully "OFF" as a Logic "0" produces an output voltage of 0.6v (diode voltage drop), so the following TTL and CMOS circuit designs are used instead.

Basic TTL Logic Gates

The simple Diode-Resistor AND gate above uses separate diodes for its inputs, one for each input. As a transistor is made up off two diode circuits connected together representing an NPN or a PNP device, the input diodes of the DTL circuit can be replaced by one single NPN transistor with multiple emitter inputs as shown.

NAND Logic Gate
2-input NAND gate

As the gate contains a single stage inverting NPN transistor circuit (TR2) an output logic level "1" at Q is only present when both the emitters of TR1 are connected to logic level "0" or ground allowing base current to pass through the PN junctions of the emitter and not the collector. The multiple emitters of TR1 are connected as inputs thus producing a NAND gate function.

In standard TTL logic gates, the transistors operate either completely in the "cut off" region, or else completely in the saturated region, Transistor as a Switch type operation.

Emitter-Coupled Digital Logic Gate

Emitter Coupled Logic or ECL is another type of digital logic gate that uses bipolar transistor logic where the transistors are not operated in the saturation region, as they are with the standard TTL digital logic gate. Instead the input and output circuits are push-pull connected transistors with the supply voltage negative with respect to ground. This has the effect of increasing the speed of operation of the ECL gates up to the Gigahertz range compared with the standard TTL types, but noise has a greater effect in ECL logic, because the unsaturated transistors operate within their active region and amplify as well as switch signals.

The "74" Sub-families of Integrated Circuits

With improvements in the circuit design to take account of propagation delays, current consumption, fan-in and fan-out requirements etc, this type of TTL bipolar transistor technology forms the basis of the prefixed "74" family of digital logic IC's, such as the "7400" Quad 2-input AND gate, or the "7402" Quad 2-input OR gate. Sub-families of the 74xx series IC's are available relating to the different technologies used to fabricate the gates and they are denoted by the letters in between the 74 designation and the device number. There are a number of TTL sub-families available that provide a wide range of switching speeds and power consumption such as the 74L00 or 74ALS00 AND gate, were the "L" stands for "Low-power TTL" and the "ALS" stands for "Advanced Low-power Schottky TTL" and these are listed below.

  • 74xx or 74Nxx: Standard TTL - These devices are the original TTL family of logic gates introduced in the early 70's. They have a propagation delay of about 10ns and a power consumption of about 10mW.
  • 74Lxx: Low Power TTL - Power consumption was improved over standard types by increasing the number of internal resistances but at the cost of a reduction in switching speed.
  • 74Hxx: High Speed TTL - Switching speed was improved by reducing the number of internal resistances. This also increased the power consumption.
  • 74Sxx: Schottky TTL - Schottky technology is used to improve input impedance, switching speed and power consumption (2mW) compared to the 74Lxx and 74Hxx types.
  • 74LSxx: Low Power Schottky TTL - Same as 74Sxx types but with increased internal resistances to improve power consumption.
  • 74ASxx: Advanced Schottky TTL - Improved design over 74Sxx Schottky types optimised to increase switching speed at the expense of power consumption of about 22mW.
  • 74ALSxx: Advanced Low Power Schottky TTL - Lower power consumption of about 1mW and higher switching speed of about 4nS compared to 74LSxx types.
  • 74HCxx: High Speed CMOS - CMOS technology and transistors to reduce power consumption of less than 1uA with CMOS compatible inputs.
  • 74HCTxx: High Speed CMOS - CMOS technology and transistors to reduce power consumption of less than 1uA but has increased propagation delay of about 16nS due to the TTL compatible inputs.

Basic CMOS Digital Logic Gate

One of the main disadvantages of the TTL logic series is that the gates are based on bipolar transistor logic technology and as transistors are current operated devices, they consume large amounts of power from a fixed +5 volt power supply. Also, TTL bipolar transistor gates have a limited operating speed when switching from an "OFF" state to an "ON" state and vice-versa called the "gate" or "propagation delay". To overcome these limitations complementary MOS called "CMOS" logic gates using "Field Effect Transistors" or FET's were developed.

As these gates use both P-channel and N-channel MOSFET's as their input device, at quiescent conditions with no switching, the power consumption of CMOS gates is almost zero, (1 to 2uA) making them ideal for use in low-power battery circuits and with switching speeds upwards of 100MHz for use in high frequency timing and computer circuits.

CMOS Logic Gate
2-input NAND gate

This CMOS gate example contains 3 N-channel MOSFET's, one for each input FET1 and FET2 and one for the output FET3. When both the inputs A and B are at logic level "0", FET1 and FET2 are both switched "OFF" giving an output logic "1" from the source of FET3. When one or both of the inputs are at logic level "1" current flows through the corresponding FET giving an output state at Q equivalent to logic "0", thus producing a NAND gate function.

Improvements in the circuit design with regards to switching speed, low power consumption and improved propagation delays has resulted in the standard CMOS 4000 "CD" family of logic IC's being developed that complement the TTL range. As with the standard TTL digital logic gates, all the major digital logic gates and devices are available in the CMOS package such as the CD4011, a Quad 2-input NAND gate, or the CD4001, a Quad 2-input NOR gate along with all their sub-families.

Like TTL logic, complementary MOS (CMOS) circuits take advantage of the fact that both N-channel and P-channel devices can be fabricated on the same substrate and connected together to form logic functions. One main disadvantage with the CMOS range of IC's compared to their equivalent TTL types is that they are easily damaged by static electricity so extra care must be taken when handling these devices. Also unlike TTL logic gates that operate on single +5V voltages for both their input and output levels, CMOS digital logic gates operate on a single supply voltage of between +3 and +18 volts.

In the next tutorial about Digital Logic Gates, we will look at the digital Logic AND Gate function as used in both TTL and CMOS logic circuits as well as its Boolean Algebra definition and truth tables.

posted by Musa @ 2:14 PM   0 comments
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